This continuo organ is a keyboard-operated edge aerophone consisting of many vertically-mounted end-blown duct flutes the blowing ends of which are situated inside a wind chest that is fed by a motorized pump. Made in 2001 by the American firm of Bennett-Giuttari (Rehoboth, MA), the organ pictured and described here is based on instruments made by the 17th century German organ builder Nikolaus Manderscheidt. While there is solo literature appropriate for this sort of organ, its primary use is as an accompanying instrument for both vocal and instrumental soloists and ensembles (see Baroque Trio Sonata). Such continuo organs are being made today to provide professional and student early music ensembles with an instrument appropriate for period performance of Baroque music. Choral societies and churches also purchase such instruments as a less costly alternative to a full sized pipe organ. While large pipe organs are found in cathedrals and churches, and in some concert halls, throughout the world, the global distribution of smaller and more specialized continuo organs such as this one is less clear; in all likelihood, continuo organs are more likely to be encountered today in Europe and the Americas than elsewhere in the world. Description This small organ has a single keyboard manual with fifty-one keys covering, chromatically, a range of four octaves and a whole step. Inside the box case of the instrument (which functions as a resonating chamber) are located one-hundred-fifty-three single-pitch cylindrical bore pipes of the duct flute type, all of them quadrangular wood pipes of varying lengths and designs, grouped into three sets, called ranks, each with 51-pipes of similar design (see the detail photo for a view of the interior of the sound chest). On the right side is located the Gedeckt rank, which is a type of stopped pipe. To its left is a second rank, this one consisting of half-stopped pipes (a metal tube penetrates through the plug that stops the pipe) called Rhorflöte. The final Holtzprincipal rank is only partially visible at the left side of the photo. Its lower-pitched pipes are fully stopped while the rest are half-stopped. A stopped pipe produces a pitch an octave lower than an open pipe of comparable length. The foot of each pipe fits into a hole on the top of a large rectangular slider chest, which controls which ranks of pipes are available to be sounded. The slider chest rests on top of an equally large, two-layer pallet box. The bottom layer of the pallet box is a large reservoir filled with pressurized air delivered from the pump. The upper layer of the pallet box consists of 53 long and narrow chambers called grooves. Above each groove is located the foot end of the pipe in each rank that is operated by a single key on the keyboard. To get pressurized air from the general reservoir into a specific groove, a spring-loaded pallet valve located between the reservoir and the groove must be opened. This is accomplished by depressing the desired keyboard key, which through a number of mechanical linkages opens the pallet valve for a particular groove. Player - Instrument Interface and Sound Production The performer stands or sits on a high stool facing the keyboard (the performer’s back would be to the camera in the photo on this page). Because the air pressure necessary to sound the pipes is produced by an electric-powered pump, the organ must be plugged into an electrical outlet and the performer must press a button to start the pump. Three sliding metal stop bars are located to the right of the keyboard with which the performer selects the individual rank or combination or ranks to be sounded. These stop bars are mechanically linked to sliders in the slider box. This organ's ranks are labeled: 8-foot Gedeckt (because these are stopped pipes, the eight-foot pipe producing C2 is actually 4 feet in length) with a range from C2 - D6; 4-foot Rhorflote (2-foot stopped pipe producing C3) with a range from C3 - D7; and 2-foot Holtzprincipal with a range from C4 - D8. Using all the fingers and thumbs of both hands to press selected keys, the performer can produce monophonic melodies, polyphonic melodies, block or arpeggiated chords, or harmonized melodies. A selected note sounds only as long as its key is depressed, and its intensity is constant throughout its sounding. The volume of sound produced by this instrument is determined 1) by the number of ranks in operation (the more, the louder) and 2) by the position of the sliding doors on the side panels of the sound chest (the more open they are, the louder the volume). Origins/History/Evolution Small, single manual organs without pedals such as the continuo organ discussed here were in vogue during the 17th century in Europe where they could be used for the accompaniment of entertainments such as chamber operas and chamber music in aristocratic households. Much of the consulted literature on the organ focused on large instruments built into cathedrals for liturgical use, providing less information about the development of smaller, moveable organs. The Baroque era continuo or positive organ on which the instrument pictured here is based was already the product of hundreds of years of development, but the details of this history are overshadowed by the attention paid to the evolution of the much more impressive organs built in cathedrals.
Contextual Associations The horagai is the only surviving lip-reed aerophone instrument; of Japan. This end-blown conch shell natural trumpet is used in different contexts: as a ritual, signaling, and protective instrument for sects of esoteric Buddhism and Shugendo (mountain asceticism shamanism); by fishermen strictly for signaling; and as an off-stage musical resource to index battle scenes in present day Kabuki theatre (Johnson, p. 693). Breaking down ‘horagai’ to its components--‘ho’ means ‘Buddhist law’; ‘ra’ ‘large conch’; and ‘gai’ or ‘kai’, ‘shell’ (ibid.)--its association with Buddhism is clear. The horagai pictured and described here were most likely used by a yamabushi (Shugendo practitioner) in training while wandering in the forests of Japan in search of spiritual insight. Description The crown of a cleaned conch shell of the variety Charonia tritonis is removed and refined, producing an opening to the spiral-shaped cavity of the shell. A conical mouthpiece of lacquered wood (in the case of the instruments described here) or of metal is attached over the opening (detail #). The mesh bags in which these shells would be carried have been lost, although one of the shells includes a fragment of such mesh rope wrapped around the base of its mouthpiece. Player - Instrument Interface and Sound Production In Buddhist and Shugendo contexts, the horagai player carries the conch in a mesh bag slung over his shoulder. To sound the instrument, he lifts the shell up, still in its mesh, with both hands so that the mouthpiece end is pressed against his lips (either centered or to one side or the other of the emboucher). With diaphram pressure, an airstream is forced through the emboucher and the lip buzzing thus produced sets the enclosed air cavity of the shell into a mode of vibration. Various unstandardized and for the most part graphic notation systems (called kaifu, ‘shell notation’) have developed amongst sects of esoteric Buddhism and Shugendo in which the fundamental pitch is called ‘otsu’ and overtones ‘kan’ (Fukui, p. 52). Both shells in gallery #1 produce three pitches: an otsu of approximately E4; and kan of E5 and B5. These first three partials of the harmonic series for the fundamental E4 are a microtone sharper in pitch on one of the horns than on the other. The tone quality of the kan (E5 and B5) are noticeably thinner than that of the otsu. An additional overtone can be obtained on larger horagai, which would produce a lower fundamental pitch than the instruments pictured here. Origins/History/Evolution The adaptation of conch shells to ritual and signaling instruments dates back at least to Neolithic times (GDMI Conch p. 676). This transformation occurred worldwide, most commonly, but not exclusively, in cultures located along ocean coastlines (see Montagu 2018 for a survey of the distribution of conch trumpets today). The horagai was probably introduced to Japan from China in the 8th or 9th centuries CE during a period when Chinese esoteric Buddhism (called Mikkyo in Japan) was being imported by returning Japanese practitioners, most importantly amongst them Kukai, the founder of the Japanese Shingon sect of esoteric Buddhism (Fukui p. 48). Its use in Buddhist worship is up to the present day found almost exclusively in a very few Shingon sect Buddhist temples. As the syncretic practice of Shugendo (‘way of asceticism,’ combining elements of Shintoism, Confucianism, Taoism, Buddhism, and esoteric Buddhism developed between the 8th to the late-12th century CE [ibid.]), the horakai became an indispensable signaling and protective tool used by Shugendo practitioners (yamabushi) when in religious training, and remains so to the present day (in 1986 there was estimated to be 5,855 sub-sects of the six original Shugendo sects with more than twelve million believers [ibid., p. 49]). It is less clear when the horagai began to be used as a signaling instrument by fishermen. In the course of its history in Japan, the horagai was also, for a time, used as a military signaling instrument, which explains why it came to be used to index battle scenes in the context of Kabuki theatre.