whistle (Lobi)

Also:       tira      

Title: Musiques du pays Lobi--Gan music for samargua dance; performers not listed. Label: OCORA. Format: LP. Catalogue#: OCR 51. Track: B2.

Contextual Associations

The tira whistle is a stopped notch-flute aerophone of the Lobi and closely-related people of southwestern Burkina Faso and parts of the adjoining countries of Ghana and Ivory Coast. It is used, usually with a few other whistles, singers, and a variety of other instruments, to accompany social dances (audio #1, in which the music for the Gan [a neighboring and closely-related people of the Lobi] dance samargua is heard, involves three tira, a rattle, a pair of metal concussion sticks, and three single-headed drums of varying size). The whistles of the Lobi and related people (including the Gan, Birifor, and other ethnic groups) are often anthropomorphic, and the example pictured here in the gallery #1 image is no exception. Sources on the Lobi are not forthcoming concerning the symbolic meaning, if any, of musical instruments with human-like shapes.

Description

Carved from a single block of wood, this whistle consists of a beveled blowhole (see detail #1) at the top of a 6-inch deep air cavity the interior wall of which is penetrated by two small soundholes the exterior openings of which are located on the “shoulders” of the instrument’s anthropomorphic body (detail #2 is a side view of the whistle showing one of these soundholes; the second soundhole is located similarly on the other side of the instrument). Just above the slightly wider lower-end of the instrument a hole is drilled through the whistle; this passes through the instrument below its internal air cavity and therefore is of no acoustical consequence (i.e., these surface holes are not soundholes).

Player - Instrument Interface and Sound Production

A seated or standing performer of this whistle would grasp the lower half of the instrument with one hand while the thumb and index or middle finger of the other hand would cover and uncover the soundholes. One beveled end of the blowhole is placed just below the player’s lower lip so that the airstream can be directed against the other beveled edge fof the blowhole rim. One pitch is produced with both of the soundholes covered, a second with one or the other soundhole uncovered, and a third with both soundholes open. The lowest and highest of three pitches produced are approximately F5 and F-sharp5, while the middle pitch is between them. Amongst the Gan at any rate, three such whistles, each with a different pitch and played by as many performers, are performed in hocket to produce a repetitive melodic pattern that constitutes one basic component of the overall musical texture (listen to audio #1).

Origins/History/Evolution

Whistles of various designs are found throughout sub-Saharan Africa, but anthropomorphic notch-flute whistles such as the tira appear to be found in more narrowly-defined regions of west and central Africa. There simply is not enough information about this distinct form of aerophone to conjecture about its origin and distribution.

Bibliographic Citations

Duvelle, Charles. 1970. Musiques du pay Lobi. LP with liner notes. Disques OCORA OCR 51.

n.a. 1984. “Tira.” NGDMI v.3: 600.

 

Instrument Information

Origins

Continent: Africa

Region: West Africa

Nation: Burkina Faso

Formation: Lobi

Classification (Sachs-Von Hornbostel revised by MIMO)

421.141.22 aerophone--stopped single notch flute: aistream directed over the edge of a notch at the top of the stopped tube; with fingerholes

Design and Playing Features

Category: aerophone

Air cavity design: tubular - cylindrical with closed distal end

Source and direction of airstream: player exhalation through mouth into air cavity; unidirectional

Energy transducer that activates sound: notched cut in rim at end of tube or in opening of vessel

Means of modifying shape and dimensions of standing wave in air cavity: opening fingerholes to reduce space or shorten length of standing wave in air cavity

Overblowing utilization: not used

Pitch production: multiple pitches - changing length/shape of standing wave within single cavity with fingerholes

Dimensions

10.5 in. height 3.4 in. greatest width

Primary Materials

wood

Entry Author

Roger Vetter